- Telephony — this area includes fixed, mobile and soft telephony, as well as the evolution of PBXs and IP PBXs. This category includes options for voice and video that bypass traditional connectivity methods, such as direct Internet based connections.
- Conferencing — this area includes voice (audio) conferencing, videoconferencing, Web conferencing that includes document and application sharing capabilities, and various forms of unified conferencing capabilities.
- Messaging — this area includes email, which has become an indispensable business tool, voice mail and various approaches to unified messaging (UM).
- Presence and IM (Jabber) — instant messaging allows individuals to send text and other information to others or to groups in real time. Presence services allow individuals to see the status of other people and resources.
- Clients - Unified clients enable access to multiple communications functions from a consistent interface. These may take different forms, including thick desktop clients, thin browser clients and clients for mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, as well as specialized clients embedded within business applications.
- Communications enabled: applications — this broad group of applications has directly integrated communications functionality. Key application areas include collaboration, contact center, notification, and consolidated administration, reporting and/or analytics tools.